Friday, 18 March 2016

Product Life Cycle

1. Design

  • Designer must think about the implications in the next stages
  • What is the product designed for? When will it be made?
  • Trend forecasting
  • How long will it last for?
2. Raw Materials
  • Need to source  materials
  • Fibres are extracted, processed, and fabrics made
3. Manufacturing
  • Garment put together
4. Packaging
  • How is it packaged?
  • Labels needed
5. Transport
  • Taken to shops
6. End Use
  • Worn once/ Often?
  • What's the life expectancy?
7. Disposal
  • Recycled
  • Charity/exchanged/passed on

Thursday, 28 January 2016

Visual Merchandising

Visual Merchandising at Topshop Singapore
From Clicknetwork

Dyeing Fabrics - Types of Dye

  • Dyeing is the permanent application of a colourant to a fibre to give a uniform colour
  • The colourant must be able to be absorbed by, or react with, the textile fibre
  • Must be soluble so it can get into the spaces between the fibre molecules
Direct Dyes
  • soluble in water
  • used for viscose, cotton and modal fibres
  • moderate light fastness
  • poor wash fastness
  • salt can be added to help fibres absorb the dye
Reactive Dyes
  • soluble in water
  • forms a strong chemical bond with cellulosic and protein fibres
  • produces bright colours that have good wash fastness
Vat Dyes
  • not soluble in water
  • excellent wash and light fastness
  • can produce indigo dye
  • a lot of indigo dye sits on top of the fibre rather than being absorbed into it, causing it to rub off onto other fabrics and lose some colour when washed
  • to get the dye into the fabric, it has to be converted into a soluble form by removing oxygen
  • once the dye is in the fibre it’s converted back into its insoluble form by oxidation, making the molecules too big to get out of the fibre
Disperse Dyes
  • used to dye fibres with hydrophobic properties
  • almost insoluble in water
  • applied to fibre in the form of a fine aqueous dispersion
  • held inside fibres by chemical bonds
Acid Dyes
  • soluble in water
  • applied to fabric in an acidic dye bath
  • good light fastness
  • wash fastness varies
Solvent Dyes
  • were created as water usage and disposal of dyes in an environmentally friendly way is expensive
  • uses organic solvents instead of water
  • however, solvent dyes are very expensive and there is cost involved in recovering the organic solvent to use again
  • equipment can be expensive
  • not very economical

Computerised Systems and Machines

Eton System
  • Overhead conveyors with product carriers
  • Transport products from workstation to workstation
  • Minimises handling - eliminates manual transportation
  • Monitored by a computer providing data for managing and measuring the process optimally
  • System is highly flexible and can be modified to change the production line

Laser Cutters
  • Cuts out pattern pieces
  • Can etch/cut designs into fabric

Steam Dolly
  • Presses garments
  • The dolly is inflated inside a garment using steam and air to get rid of creases before they are sent off

Sunday, 24 January 2016

CAD/CAM: Uses and Pros and Cons

CAD/CAM have increased automated production processes.

How can computers be used during design and manufacturing?
  • Creating virtual samples
  • Printing designs
  • Weaving
  • Creating patterns and prints
  • Testing alternative colourways or patterns
  • Automated sewing and embroidery
  • Pattern grading for shapes and sizes
  • Knitting
  • Layplanning
  • Laser controlled cutting tables
  • Eton handling system
  • Online conferencing
  • Marketing
  • Communication

  • Planning is easier as CAD/CAM allows for better communication
    - designs can be emailed to one another
    - communication is also easier across the globe which is important in a globalized industry 
  • Designs can be checked more easily for accuracy
  • Efficiency of manufacturing process increases
    - can do lay planning, cutting two pieces at once
  • Enhanced aesthetic qualities
    - brighter prints etc.
  • Quality in production is ensured
  • Manufacturing costs and waste are reduced
  • Accuracy in developments of design and styles are improved

  • High costs of machinery
  • Setting up machinery may be difficult, also takes time and money
  • Less jobs for people as they are taken by machines

Luxury Hair Fibres

  • Most expensive
  • Makes soft, lightweight, and warm fabrics

  • Long fibres
  • Lightly curled
  • Silky lustre
  • Takes dye well
  • Doesn't felt easily

  • Fine
  • Light fibres
  • Moisture absorbant
  • Coarse guard hairs create a spiked effect

  • Fine
  • Soft
  • Lightly crimped
  • Beige
  • Used for outerwear and interlinings

Alpaca, Llama, Vicuna, Guanaco
  • Fine fibres
  • Look soft
  • Hard wearing
  • Lightly crimped
  • Good thermal properties
  • Used for outerwear, knitted fabrics, and blankets
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